Byzantium: A Tale of Three Cities - Netflix

Posted on Mon 24 June 2019 in netflix

Historian Simon Sebag Montefiore traces the sacred history of Istanbul. The Turkish capital was once described as the 'city of the world's desire', having been the focus of three faiths - Paganism, Christianity and Islam - and the stage for some of the fiercest political and religious conflicts over the past 2,500 years.

Byzantium: A Tale of Three Cities - Netflix

Type: Documentary

Languages: English

Status: Ended

Runtime: 60 minutes

Premier: 2013-12-05

Byzantium: A Tale of Three Cities - One Thousand and One Nights - Netflix

One Thousand and One Nights (Arabic: أَلْف لَيْلَة وَلَيْلَة‎, translit. ʾAlf layla wa-layla) is a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age. It is often known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English-language edition (1706), which rendered the title as The Arabian Nights' Entertainment. The work was collected over many centuries by various authors, translators, and scholars across West, Central, and South Asia and North Africa. The tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Greek, Indian, Jewish, Persian and Turkish folklore and literature. In particular, many tales were originally folk stories from the Abbasid era, while others, especially the frame story, are most probably drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work Hezār Afsān (Persian: هزار افسان‎, lit. A Thousand Tales), which in turn relied partly on Indian elements. What is common throughout all the editions of the Nights is the initial frame story of the ruler Shahryār and his wife Scheherazade and the framing device incorporated throughout the tales themselves. The stories proceed from this original tale; some are framed within other tales, while others begin and end of their own accord. Some editions contain only a few hundred nights, while others include 1,001 or more. The bulk of the text is in prose, although verse is occasionally used for songs and riddles and to express heightened emotion. Most of the poems are single couplets or quatrains, although some are longer. Some of the stories commonly associated with The Nights, in particular “Aladdin's Wonderful Lamp”, “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves”, and “The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor”, were not part of The Nights in its original Arabic versions but were added to the collection by Antoine Galland and other European translators.

Byzantium: A Tale of Three Cities - Foreshadowing - Netflix

Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designation, now known as “Chekhov's gun”, occur in the One Thousand and One Nights, which contains “repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative”. A notable example is in the tale of “The Three Apples” (see Crime fiction elements below). Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning, “the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds”. This technique also dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights. Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecy, which dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature, and Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles. A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which dates back to medieval Arabic literature (or the dreams of Joseph and his conflicts with his brothers, in the Hebrew Bible). Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis. A notable example is “The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream”, in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo, where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure. The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain. The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure. In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true. A variant of this story later appears in English folklore as the “Pedlar of Swaffham” and Paulo Coelho's “The Alchemist”; Jorge Luis Borges' collection of short stories A Universal History of Infamy featured his translation of this particular story into Spanish, as “The Story Of The Two Dreamers.” Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in “The Tale of Attaf”, where Harun al-Rashid consults his library (the House of Wisdom), reads a random book, “falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier” Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight. Ja'afar, “disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus, involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.” After returning to Baghdad, Ja'afar reads the same book that caused Harun to laugh and weep, and discovers that it describes his own adventures with Attaf. In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place. This is an early example of reverse causation. Near the end of the tale, Attaf is given a death sentence for a crime he didn't commit but Harun, knowing the truth from what he has read in the book, prevents this and has Attaf released from prison. In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis, alongside the “Sinbad the Sailor” story cycle. In the 14th century, a version of “The Tale of Attaf” also appears in the Gesta Romanorum and Giovanni Boccaccio's The Decameron.

Byzantium: A Tale of Three Cities - References - Netflix