A police/crime drama in which major figures on both sides of the law - a
mob boss and the head of a police intelligence unit - make a deal that
benefits each but could ultimately destroy them both.
Runtime: 60 minutes
Intelligence - Intelligence quotient - Netflix
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several
standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. The
abbreviation “IQ” was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the
German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for
intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book.
Historically, IQ is a score obtained by dividing a person's mental age
score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person's
chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months. The
resulting fraction is multiplied by 100 to obtain the IQ score. When
current IQ tests were developed, the median raw score of the norming
sample is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation (SD) up
or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less, although this was
not always so historically. By this definition, approximately two-thirds
of the population scores are between IQ 85 and IQ 115. About 2.5 percent
of the population scores above 130, and 2.5 percent below 70. Scores
from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence. Unlike, for
example, distance and mass, a concrete measure of intelligence cannot be
achieved given the abstract nature of the concept of “intelligence”. IQ
scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity
and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree,
biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been
investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the
significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of
inheritance. IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of
intellectual disability, and evaluating job applicants. Even when
students improve their scores on standardized tests, they do not always
improve their cognitive abilities, such as memory, attention and speed.
In research contexts they have been studied as predictors of job
performance, and income. They are also used to study distributions of
psychometric intelligence in populations and the correlations between it
and other variables. Raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have
been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade
since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect.
Investigation of different patterns of increases in subtest scores can
also inform current research on human intelligence.
Intelligence - Criticism of IQ - Netflix
Jensen also argued that even if g were replaced by a model with several
intelligences this would change the situation less than expected. He
argues that all tests of cognitive ability would continue to be highly
correlated with one another and there would still be a black-white gap
on cognitive tests. Hans Eysenck responded to Gould by stating that no
psychologist had said that intelligence was an area located in the
brain. Eysenck also argued IQ tests were not racist, pointing out that
Northeast Asians and Jews both scored higher than non-Jewish Europeans
on IQ tests, and this would not please European racists. Psychologist
Peter Schönemann persistently criticized IQ, calling it “the IQ myth”.
He argued that g is a flawed theory and that the high heritability
estimates of IQ are based on false assumptions. Robert Sternberg,
another significant critic of g as the main measure of human cognitive
abilities, argued that reducing the concept of intelligence to the
measure of g does not fully account for the different skills and
knowledge types that produce success in human society.
...the abstraction of intelligence as a single entity, its location
within the brain, its quantification as one number for each individual,
and the use of these numbers to rank people in a single series of
worthiness, invariably to find that oppressed and disadvantaged
groups—races, classes, or sexes—are innately inferior and deserve their
...what Gould has mistaken for “reification” is neither more nor less
than the common practice in every science of hypothesizing explanatory
models to account for the observed relationships within a given domain.
Well known examples include the heliocentric theory of planetary motion,
the Bohr atom, the electromagnetic field, the kinetic theory of gases,
gravitation, quarks, Mendelian genes, mass, velocity, etc. None of these
constructs exists as a palpable entity occupying physical space.
Arthur Jensen responded:
Intelligence - References - Netflix